The move comes after members of the RMT rail union voted to take action in a ballot earlier this month.
The union said the strikes would take place each Sunday until 2 May, with the possibility of further action if no agreement is reached with ScotRail.
The rail operator has warned customers of “significant” travel disruption as a result of the action.
A list of key routes that will be affected can be found on the ScotRail website.
In addition to the Sunday strikes, the RMT has instructed its members not to work on any rest days or undertake “higher grade duties” from 00:01 on Friday until further notice.
The union said the dispute centred around enhanced payments for rest-day working.
RMT general secretary Mick Cash said: “We have made it clear that we will not allow ScotRail to divide the workforce and are demanding that ScotRail do what is fair and honour an enhanced rate for rest-day working for all grades.”
In a statement on Wednesday, ScotRail said it would not be able to provide the same level of services over the next six Sundays.
It warned that services would be cancelled on a number of key routes and would have “a significant impact” on people who needed to travel, including NHS workers delivering services during the pandemic.
ScotRail head of conductors Graham Ralston said: “We will do everything we can to minimise the consequences of this action, but key workers will be adversely affected.
“Inevitably, many will have to find alternative and much less convenient ways to get to work to perform their life-saving duties.”
Meanwhile, the RMT is balloting ScotRail ticket examiners for strike action over the same issue.
The ballot runs until 8 April.